Golden Retriever breed history
The Golden Retriever, or Golden Retriever (“Retrieve” means: find, save, in relation to a dog – “find and serve game”.), – a breed of hunting dogs, bred in Great Britain in the 19th century.
The Golden Retriever was bred in England as a versatile hunting dog for feeding beaten game. Has the same ancestors as a Labrador retriever. According to one of the versions, which, by the way, does not have any documentary evidence, the appearance of the breed is associated with the name of Lord Tweedmouth, Sir Dudley Magoribanks.
In 1858, he visited Brighton for a visiting circus, where in one of the numbers he saw dogs that amazed him with their intelligence. He was so subdued that he immediately acquired eight dogs from the circus.
However, the most complete information about the formation of the breed is in the books of the game, which were kept in the Scottish estate of Gvisekan of Lord Tweedmouth from 1835 to 1890. According to these books, the breed was formed by crossing the now extinct tweed water spaniel – a large, light brown dog with curly hair, small feathers on the ears and forepaws – and the small type of Newfoundland. The retrievers also received the blood of Irish Setters, Water Spaniels and Bloodhounds.
In general, the need for retrievers has arisen thanks to … a gun. The advent of a relatively modern hunting weapon that allows you to shoot a bird into the air has led to the fact that hunting has become a fashionable sport, an all-consuming hobby.
Whether you are a Lord or not, but into an icy swamp for a bird, as well as a warm one (In order to somehow imagine what it is about: Lord de Gray, a first-class shooter, according to records, from 1867 to 1923 shot 250,000 pheasants, 100,000 gray partridges and 50,000 scottish partridges. Only birds found and brought home are counted.)
In general, there was an urgent need for retrievers proper.
Some hunters began to train their setters and pointers to find and carry the bird, but then they stopped doing the “point”.
Gun dogs mated among themselves, aristocrats in their kennels bred and jealously guarded “their own breeds”, and gave them their names.
As hunting became a sport, competitions inevitably appeared.
The first retriever competition was held in Stafford in 1867. The dogs were evaluated for intuition, “soft mouth” (the dog must bring the bird intact), as well as obedience. The setter’s passion for hunting as such was considered undesirable.
In order to be a good retriever, a dog had to be:
- non-aggressive and balanced,
- work with pleasure,
- strong and hardy (a bird can weigh 7 kg.),
- preferably with round feet with thick pads
- medium size (to fit into the boat),
- The dog should swim perfectly and without hesitation go into the icy water, so it is good if he has a thick and not too long coat with a waterproof undercoat.
And of course a very good instinct is absolutely necessary. Athletes crossed their setters with Newfoundland St. John, brought to the south and north-west coast of England by Newfoundland fishing boats (Newfoundland St. John is a dog much smaller than the familiar Newfoundland, the size of a modern setter, similar in physique to a beagle).
It is important to remember that in those days, dogs called setters and spaniels looked very different from what these breeds look like today.
In 1886, in a series of books published under the title Badmington Library, the following can be read: “In our opinion, the retriever is the king of sporting dogs. His manners are full of dignity, his actions are the pinnacle of the mind of animals, he is a loyal friend and a wonderful companion, no matter how one other hunting dog. ”
In 1913, the golden retriever was recognized by the English Kennel Club, and in 1954 by the International Cynological Federation. In 1886, in a series of books published under the title Badmington Library, you can read the following: “In our opinion, the retriever is the king of sporting dogs. manners are full of dignity, his actions are the pinnacle of the mind of animals, he is a loyal friend and a wonderful companion like no other hunting dog.“
In 1913, the Golden Retriever was recognized by the English Kennel Club, and in 1954 by the International Cynological Federation.